Chez Jallot

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Chez Jallot, 23250 VIDAILLAT, France

 Tel.:       +33 (0)555 645 077

 Email:    info@chezjallot.com

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L’Auvergne

The Auvergne coat-of-arms

Introduction

The Auvergne is a former administrative region of France. It comprises of four departments: Allier, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal and Haute-Loire and since 1st January 2016, it has become part of the new region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The administrative region of Auvergne is larger than the historical province of Auvergne, and includes provinces and areas that historically were not part of Auvergne.

The average annual temperature is 12 °C (54 °F), and the region receives 510–1,020 mm of rainfall annually. The region is altogether very dry, and has very long winters paired with short summers.

While agriculture is important, Auvergne is a relatively industrial region as well. The main industry in Auvergne is the tyre industry, represented by Michelin, with its headquarters located in Clermont-Ferrand, and Dunlop, based in Montlucon. A diverse range of small industries also exists: metallurgical, mechanical, pharmaceutical, food, cheese and mineral exists in the region, particularly in the Puy-de-Dôme and the Haute-Loire.

Despite its small local market, the Auvergne region has developed many national and international companies, such as Michelin, Limagrain (seed), the group Centre France-La Montagne (regional daily press), Volvic mineral water (group Danone) and numerous dynamic SMEs around the two universities and large schools (engineers, doctors and business school) of its capital, Clermont-Ferrand. Most of these companies are exporting more than 75% of their production.

The Auvergne is also one of the premier research areas in France with more than 8,000 researchers in the fields of chemistry, tire, steel, medical and pharmaceutical sciences in agricultural research (INRA's laboratories and Limagrain's laboratories), in biotechnology, seismology, meteorology, etc.

Departments

Allier (03), Cantal (15), Haute-Loire (43), Puy-de-Dôme (63)

Prefecture

Clermont-Ferrand

Area

26,013 km2

Population & Density

1,357,668 (52/km2)

Geography

Auvergne is bordered to the east by the Rhône-Alpes region, to the south by the Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrenees regions, to the north by the Centre-Val de Loire and Burgundy regions, and to the west by the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. Auvergne has a surface area of 26,013 square kilometres equivalent to 4.8% of France's total surface area. Prior to the merge of regions in January 2016. the Auvergne was one of the smallest regions in France.

Brief History

The region of Auvergne was named after the Arverni, one of the most powerful Gallic tribes. It was composed of the Gabali, the Vellavi, and the Cadurci, whose sphere of influence included the regions of Languedoc and Aquitaine. Vercingetorix was granted the title of king in 52 BC. His father, Celtillos, elected as a king before him, had been killed by his companions who opposed Celtillos' goal of having the title be hereditary.

In the winter of 53/52 BC, Vercingetorix created alliances with all the Celtic tribes surrounding him by holding as hostages daughters or sons of the kings of each tribe. With this threat, he gained their guarantees of faithfulness and alliance. Based on reports in 2007 of excavations by archaeologists, the capital of the Arverni is believed to have been situated between Gergovie, Corent, Aulnat and several other significant areas within a 35 km area. Researchers estimate a population of 150,000 inhabitants living in the centre of this area, and a total of more than 400,000 inhabitants living in the region of these towns.

In the 7th-century, the Franks and the Aquitani competed for control of the Auvergne. During the Middle Age, the earldom of Auvergne covered the current departments of Puy de Dome, the northern half of Cantal, as well as a small third in the North West of Haute-Loire, with the county of Brioude. The other part of Cantal constituted the direct territory of Aurillac Abbey, and a part of it was indentured to the viscounts of Millau, to form the Carlades.

One century after the Hundred Years’ War, the Auvergne plunged into religion wars. Some Calvinist militia made incursions in the Highland taking by surprise, castles and catholic villages. They then gave them back, asking a ransom in return. And this is how the city of Aurillac had been taken over, and its abbey completely destroyed. The Queen of France, Catherine de Medicis, inherited the last part of the earldom from her mother, which allowed the integration of the last feudal fiefdom, at the heart of Auvergne, to the royal territory.

In 1665, Louis XIV temporarily set up an exceptional criminal court in Clermont-Ferrand and Le Puy en Velay, in order to comply with the plaints of the people, who were victim of violence and abuse of officials and noblemen of Auvergne. During the 18th-century, the economic situation of the farmers got considerably better, thanks to the wise politic of the Auvergne intendants, who took the reins after the abbeys, and who developed farming, cheese manufacturing, agriculture, glasswork, ironwork and roads.

During WWII, Vichy was the headquarters of the government of the French State.

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Chez Jallot, 23250 VIDAILLAT, France

 Tel.:       +33 (0)555 645 077

 Email:    info@chezjallot.com


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